Manuscripts must be in English.
Manuscripts should not exceed 10 pages in length. Longer papers will be returned to the author(s) to be abridged.
– be written in word format;
– be double-spaced (including footnotes and references);
– respect the paper size 17/24 cm;
– respect the following custom margins: Top: 2,2 cm; Bottom: 2 cm; Left: 2,5 cm; Right: 2,5 cm; Gutter: o cm; Gutter Position: Left;
– be written in Book Antiqua font, size 11.
Authors are urged to write as concisely as possible, but not at the expense of clarity.
Scientific research articles provide a method for scientists to communicate the results of their research to other scientists. A standard format is used for these articles, in which the author presents the research in an orderly, logical manner.
This format contains:
1.1. Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper, but not so technical that only specialists will understand. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience.
1.2. The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: “Historical Landmarks of the Romanian’s Migration to Germany”.
1.3. Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: “Organization and Functioning of Kuwaiti Legal System”.
- Authors name and affiliation
2.1. Please indicate the given name and family name clearly. Present the authors’ affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author’s name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address, and telephone number of each author.
3.1. An abstract, or summary, is published together with a research article, giving the reader a preview of what is to come. They allow other scientists to quickly scan the large scientific literature, and decide which articles they want to read in depth. The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself; you do not want to dissuade your potential audience from reading your paper.
3.2. Your abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-250 words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper.
3.3. It is not easy to include all this information in just a few words. Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important, and then gradually prune it down to size by removing unnecessary words, while still retaining the necessary concepts.
3.4. Do not use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.
4.1. Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”).
5.1. What question did you ask in your experiment? Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. One to four paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.
- Material and methods
6.1. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.
6.2. If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used.
6.3. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. (“in the early 1980s the two main destinations, Germany and Israel, represented approximately 80% of the total external migration”).
7.1. This is where you present the results of your research. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; that goes in the Discussion.
7.2. You do not necessarily have to include all the data you have gotten during the semester. This is not a diary.
- Tables & figures
8.1. If you present your data in a table or figure, include a title describing what is in the table (“Permanent emigration of Romanian citizens by country of destination (1989-2003) “, not “My results”.) For figures, you should also label the x and y axes.
8.2. Do not use a table or graph just to be “fancy”. If you can summarize the information in one sentence, a table or graph is no longer necessary.
9.1. Highlight the most significant results, but do not just repeat what you have written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do your results fit into the big picture?
9.2. End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.
10.1. This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript.
11.1. Author(s) should follow the latest edition of APA style in referencing. Please visit www.apastyle.orgto learn more about APA style.
11.2. In-text citations and the reference list
The References section in an APA-style paper has a particular purpose:
It lists the work you have referred to in your writing. Therefore, if you mention a book, a book chapter, a journal article, or any other source, you should include it among the references. You should keep in mind that the references begin on a separate page in a paper you write. Like the rest of your paper, it is double-spaced. Consequently, type the section heading (i.e., the word References, centered in bold type) followed on the next line by the first reference. Do not include a blank line after each reference.
11.2.1. Citing in-text references
There are several ways of citing references as you create your text, but all of them involve mentioning the author or authors and the year in which the source was published or presented. Use last names only if there are different authors with the same last name, which could confuse a reader; in that case, use the initials of the different authors in addition to the last name. Therefore, the reference style within the body of your paper is simple: last names of the author(s) and year of the work. However, if you have just mentioned a source, you may not need to cite the year again. The general rule is that, within a given paragraph, you need to include the year only once. Every time you mention a work with one or two authors, you must cite all names and the date.
In publications or presentations which involve three to five authors, identify all the authors when you first mention the work. Then, in subsequent references to them, you list only the first author and follow it with the phrase “et al.”. There is a period after al. If there are six or more such people, the referencing format is a little different than when there are five or fewer. In APA style, if there are six or more authors, you list only the first author, followed by et al. (with a period after al), which means and others in Latin, and the date of the publication.
Citing archive documents is made mentioning the document name, year, followed by consulted page/pages.
In-text citations: (Project of Treaty of Nuclear Non-proliferation, 1967, f. 20).
References list: Proiectul Tratatului de Neproliferare a Armelor Nucleare [Project of Treaty of Nuclear Non-proliferation]. ANR [National Archives of Romania], fund CC al PCR [Romanian Communist Party Central Committee], section Chancellery, dossier no. 52/1967.
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as ‘in press’ implies that the item has been accepted for publication.
184.108.40.206. Citing multiple sources within parentheses
If you cite more than one work within parentheses, there are certain rules for ordering them:
Alphabetize the references by the last name of the first author;
If you cite the same author more than once, put the author’s work in chronological order, with the oldest first;
In you cite an author who has more than one reference in a given year, add letters to the date (e.g., Davis, 2004a, 2004b,2004c).
Reference to a journal publication:
Iorga, F. L. (2014). The memory of the Romanian elites. Annals of the University of Craiova. History. 19, 2(26), 157-172.
Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J. A. J. & Lupton, R. A. (2000). The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Scientific Communications, 163, 51-59.
Reference to a book:
Dindirică, L. (2011). Miron Cristea – Patriarh, Regent și Prim-Ministru. Iași: Tipo Moldova.
MacMillan, M. (2013). The War That Ended Peace: The Road to 1914. Toronto: Allen Lane Canada.
Book – multiple authors:
Damean, S. L. & Oncescu, I. (2015). De la Tudor Vladimirescu la Marea Unire. O istorie a românilor. (1821-1918). Târgoviște: Cetatea de Scaun.
Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Ghițulescu, M. (2014). Evoluția instituțiilor politice în timpul regimului comunist. In S.L. Damean (coord.) Evoluția instituțiilor politice ale statului român din 1859 până astăzi, (p. 111-192). Târgoviște: Cetatea de Scaun Publishing House.
Mettam, G. R. & Adams, L. B. (1994). How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In B. S. Jones, & R. Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the electronic age (pp. 281-304). New York: E-Publishing Inc.
Book – group of unnamed authors, belonging to an agency, an organization:
American Psychological Association (2001). Publication Manual (5thed.). Washington DC: APA.
Reference to an archive document:
Stenograma convorbirilor dintre tovarășul Nicolae Ceaușescu, secretar general al CC al PCR și tovarășul Santiago Carrillo, secretar general al Partidului Comunist din Spania [Transcripts of the talks between cmd. Nicolae Ceaușescu, secretary general of the CC of PCR and cmd. Santiago Carrillo, secretary general of the Spanish Communist Party]. National Archives of Romania (onwards ANR), fund CC al PCR (Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party), section External Relations, dossier no. 38/1967.
Unpublished study presented to a conference:
Vintilă, M. (2002, Mai). Integration into the education system of the prematurely born subjects. Work presented at the VIII-th edition of the National Symposium „Theoretical – Praxeology Dimensions of Research in Social – Humanities Sciences”, Timişoara.
Reference to a web source:
K. C. (2015, September 9). 8 Things You May Not Know About the Real Colonel Sanders. Retrieved November 23, 2015, from http://www.history.com/news/hungry-history/8-things-you-may-not-know-about-the-real-colonel-sanders.
11.2.2. Order of citations in the reference list
The most basic rule is to alphabetize the reference list by the last name of the first author:
If you cite two references for which the first author is the same for each, put them in chronological order;
If you cite two references with the same first author, but different coauthors, alphabetize by the last name of the second (or third, etc.) author;
If two different authors have the same last name, alphabetize by their initials (e.g., Smith, R.A. would precede Smith, S.L.).
Ferguson, N. (2011). Civilization: The West and the Rest. New York: The Penguin Press HC.
Markham, R. H. (1996). România sub jugul sovietic [Romania under Soviet yoke]. Bucharest: Civic Academy Foundation.
Oroveanu, M. T. (1986) Organizarea administrativă și sistematizarea teritoriului Republicii Socialiste România [Administrative-territorial zoning of the territory of Socialist Republic of Romania]. Bucharest: Scientific and Encyclopedic Publishing House.
11.3. Subdivision of the article
Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1, 2. (then 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.1.2), 1.2, etc. The abstract is not included in section numbering.
11.4. Abbreviations and units
Abbreviations that are accepted and recognized as common scientific terminology may be used without definition. All non-standard abbreviations should be defined at the point in the text where they first appear.
The style of the manuscript should confirm to currently acceptable usage in matters of grammar and syntax.